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Trade-Offs in Relative Limb Length among Peruvian Children: Extending the Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis to Limb Proportions

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dc.contributor.author Pomeroy, E.
dc.contributor.author Stock, J.T.
dc.contributor.author Stanojevic, S.
dc.contributor.author Miranda, J. Jaime
dc.contributor.author Cole, T.J.
dc.contributor.author Wells, J.C.K.
dc.date.accessioned 2022-01-18T19:34:40Z
dc.date.available 2022-01-18T19:34:40Z
dc.date.issued 2012
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12866/11117
dc.description.abstract Background and Methods: Both the concept of 'brain-sparing' growth and associations between relative lower limb length, childhood environment and adult disease risk are well established. Furthermore, tibia length is suggested to be particularly plastic under conditions of environmental stress. The mechanisms responsible are uncertain, but three hypotheses may be relevant. The 'thrifty phenotype' assumes that some components of growth are selectively sacrificed to preserve more critical outcomes, like the brain. The 'distal blood flow' hypothesis assumes that blood nutrients decline with distance from the heart, and hence may affect limbs in relation to basic body geometry. Temperature adaptation predicts a gradient of decreased size along the limbs reflecting decreasing tissue temperature/blood flow. We examined these questions by comparing the size of body segments among Peruvian children born and raised in differentially stressful environments. In a cross-sectional sample of children aged 6 months to 14 years (n = 447) we measured head circumference, head-trunk height, total upper and lower limb lengths, and zeugopod (ulna and tibia) and autopod (hand and foot) lengths. Results: Highland children (exposed to greater stress) had significantly shorter limbs and zeugopod and autopod elements than lowland children, while differences in head-trunk height were smaller. Zeugopod elements appeared most sensitive to environmental conditions, as they were relatively shorter among highland children than their respective autopod elements. Discussion: The results suggest that functional traits (hand, foot, and head) may be partially protected at the expense of the tibia and ulna. The results do not fit the predictions of the distal blood flow and temperature adaptation models as explanations for relative limb segment growth under stress conditions. Rather, our data support the extension of the thrifty phenotype hypothesis to limb growth, and suggest that certain elements of limb growth may be sacrificed under tough conditions to buffer more functional traits. en_US
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Public Library of Science
dc.relation.ispartofseries PLoS ONE
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccess
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.es
dc.subject Adolescent en_US
dc.subject Child en_US
dc.subject Child, Preschool en_US
dc.subject Humans en_US
dc.subject Peru en_US
dc.subject controlled study en_US
dc.subject cross-sectional study en_US
dc.subject Environment en_US
dc.subject Infant en_US
dc.subject altitude en_US
dc.subject Body Height en_US
dc.subject tibia en_US
dc.subject arm en_US
dc.subject Body Size en_US
dc.subject trunk en_US
dc.subject environmental stress en_US
dc.subject head circumference en_US
dc.subject ethnic group en_US
dc.subject Peruvian en_US
dc.subject anthropometric parameters en_US
dc.subject Hispanic Americans en_US
dc.subject Phenotype en_US
dc.subject child growth en_US
dc.subject leg length en_US
dc.subject hand en_US
dc.subject Lower Extremity en_US
dc.subject anatomical variation en_US
dc.subject blood flow en_US
dc.subject bone structure en_US
dc.subject child rearing en_US
dc.subject foot en_US
dc.subject Head en_US
dc.subject land use en_US
dc.subject limb length en_US
dc.subject temperature acclimatization en_US
dc.subject ulna en_US
dc.title Trade-Offs in Relative Limb Length among Peruvian Children: Extending the Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis to Limb Proportions en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051795
dc.subject.ocde https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#3.01.00
dc.relation.issn 1932-6203

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