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Trauma and PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

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dc.contributor.author Kessler, Ronald C.
dc.contributor.author Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio
dc.contributor.author Alonso, Jordi
dc.contributor.author Benjet, Corina
dc.contributor.author Bromet, Evelyn J.
dc.contributor.author Cardoso, Graça
dc.contributor.author Degenhardt, Louisa
dc.contributor.author de Girolamo, Giovanni
dc.contributor.author Dinolova, Rumyana V.
dc.contributor.author Ferry, Finola
dc.contributor.author Florescu, Silvia
dc.contributor.author Gureje, Oye
dc.contributor.author Haro, Josep Maria
dc.contributor.author Huang, Yueqin
dc.contributor.author Karam, Elie G.
dc.contributor.author Kawakami, Norito
dc.contributor.author Lee, Sing
dc.contributor.author Lepine, Jean-Pierre
dc.contributor.author Levinson, Daphna
dc.contributor.author Navarro-Mateu, Fernando
dc.contributor.author Pennell, Beth-Ellen
dc.contributor.author Piazza Ferrand, Marina Julia
dc.contributor.author Posada-Villa, José
dc.contributor.author Scott, Kate M.
dc.contributor.author Stein, Dan J.
dc.contributor.author Ten Have, Margreet
dc.contributor.author Torres, Yolanda
dc.contributor.author Viana, Maria Carmen
dc.contributor.author Petukhova, Maria V.
dc.contributor.author Sampson, Nancy A.
dc.contributor.author Zaslavsky, Alan M.
dc.contributor.author Koenen, Karestan C.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-01-25T16:20:55Z
dc.date.available 2019-01-25T16:20:55Z
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12866/4785
dc.description.abstract Background: Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) onset-persistence is thought to vary significantly by trauma type, most epidemiological surveys are incapable of assessing this because they evaluate lifetime PTSD only for traumas nominated by respondents as their 'worst.' Objective: To review research on associations of trauma type with PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of epidemiological surveys that obtained representative data on trauma-specific PTSD. Method: WMH Surveys in 24 countries (n = 68,894) assessed 29 lifetime traumas and evaluated PTSD twice for each respondent: once for the 'worst' lifetime trauma and separately for a randomly-selected trauma with weighting to adjust for individual differences in trauma exposures. PTSD onset-persistence was evaluated with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results: In total, 70.4% of respondents experienced lifetime traumas, with exposure averaging 3.2 traumas per capita. Substantial between-trauma differences were found in PTSD onset but less in persistence. Traumas involving interpersonal violence had highest risk. Burden of PTSD, determined by multiplying trauma prevalence by trauma-specific PTSD risk and persistence, was 77.7 person-years/100 respondents. The trauma types with highest proportions of this burden were rape (13.1%), other sexual assault (15.1%), being stalked (9.8%), and unexpected death of a loved one (11.6%). The first three of these four represent relatively uncommon traumas with high PTSD risk and the last a very common trauma with low PTSD risk. The broad category of intimate partner sexual violence accounted for nearly 42.7% of all person-years with PTSD. Prior trauma history predicted both future trauma exposure and future PTSD risk. Conclusions: Trauma exposure is common throughout the world, unequally distributed, and differential across trauma types with respect to PTSD risk. Although a substantial minority of PTSD cases remits within months after onset, mean symptom duration is considerably longer than previously recognized. en_US
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Taylor and Francis
dc.relation.ispartofseries European Journal of Psychotraumatology
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccess
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.es
dc.subject epidemiology en_US
dc.subject Burden of illness en_US
dc.subject disorder prevalence and persistence en_US
dc.subject post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) en_US
dc.subject trauma exposure en_US
dc.title Trauma and PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2017.1353383
dc.subject.ocde https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#3.02.24
dc.relation.issn 2000-8066

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