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Evidence for temporal population replacement and the signature of ecological adaptation in a major Neotropical malaria vector in Amazonian Peru

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dc.contributor.author Lainhart, William
dc.contributor.author Bickersmith, Sara A.
dc.contributor.author Nadler, Kyle J.
dc.contributor.author Moreno, Marta
dc.contributor.author Saavedra, Marlon P.
dc.contributor.author Chu, Virginia M.
dc.contributor.author Ribolla, Paulo E.
dc.contributor.author Vinetz, Joseph M.
dc.contributor.author Conn, Jan E.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-02-06T14:53:06Z
dc.date.available 2019-02-06T14:53:06Z
dc.date.issued 2015
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12866/5363
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: The major Neotropical malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi, was reintroduced into the Iquitos, Loreto, Peru area during the early 1990s, where it displaced other anophelines and caused a major malaria epidemic. Since then, case numbers in Loreto have fluctuated, but annual increases have been reported since 2012. METHODS: The population genetic structure of An. darlingi sampled before and after the introduction of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was investigated to test the hypothesis of temporal population change (2006 vs. 2012). Current samples of An. darlingi were used to test the hypothesis of ecological adaptation to human modified (highway) compared with wild (riverine) habitat, linked to forest cover. In total, 693 An. darlingi from nine localities in Loreto, Peru area were genotyped using 13 microsatellite loci. To test the hypothesis of habitat differentiation in An. darlingi biting time patterns, HBR and EIR, four collections of An. darlingi from five localities (two riverine and three highway) were analysed. RESULTS: Analyses of microsatellite loci from seven (2006) and nine settlements (2012-2014) in the Iquitos area detected two distinctive populations with little overlap, although it is unclear whether this population replacement event is associated with LLIN distribution or climate. Within the 2012-2014 population two admixed subpopulations, A and B, were differentiated by habitat, with B significantly overrepresented in highway, and both in near-equal proportions in riverine. Both subpopulations had a signature of expansion and there was moderate genetic differentiation between them. Habitat and forest cover level had significant effects on HBR, such that Plasmodium transmission risk, as measured by EIR, in peridomestic riverine settlements was threefold higher than in peridomestic highway settlements. HBR was directly associated with available host biomass rather than forest cover. CONCLUSIONS: A population replacement event occurred between 2006 and 2012-2014, concurrently with LLIN distribution and a moderate El Nino event, and prior to an increase in malaria incidence. The likely drivers of this replacement cannot be determined with current data. The present-day An. darlingi population is composed of two highly admixed subpopulations, which appear to be in an early stage of differentiation, triggered by anthropogenic alterations to local habitat. en_US
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher BioMed Central
dc.relation.ispartof urn:issn:1475-2875
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccess
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.es
dc.subject Female en_US
dc.subject Humans en_US
dc.subject Peru/epidemiology en_US
dc.subject Animals en_US
dc.subject Genetics, Population en_US
dc.subject DNA, Protozoan/genetics en_US
dc.subject Microsatellite Repeats/genetics en_US
dc.subject Rainforest en_US
dc.subject Anopheles/genetics/physiology en_US
dc.subject Insect Bites and Stings en_US
dc.subject Insect Vectors/genetics/physiology en_US
dc.subject Malaria/transmission en_US
dc.subject Wings, Animal en_US
dc.title Evidence for temporal population replacement and the signature of ecological adaptation in a major Neotropical malaria vector in Amazonian Peru en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-0863-4
dc.subject.ocde https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#3.02.00 es_PE


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