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Pollution, habitat loss, fishing, and climate change as critical threats to penguins

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dc.contributor.author Trathan, P.N.
dc.contributor.author García-Borboroglu, P.
dc.contributor.author Boersma, D.
dc.contributor.author Bost, C.-A.
dc.contributor.author Crawford, R.J.M.
dc.contributor.author Crossin, G.T.
dc.contributor.author Cuthbert, R.J.
dc.contributor.author Dann, P.
dc.contributor.author Davis, L.S.
dc.contributor.author De La Puente, S.
dc.contributor.author Ellenberg, U.
dc.contributor.author Lynch, H.J.
dc.contributor.author Mattern, T.
dc.contributor.author Pütz, K.
dc.contributor.author Seddon, P.J.
dc.contributor.author Trivelpiece, W.
dc.contributor.author Wienecke, B.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-04-25T15:46:36Z
dc.date.available 2019-04-25T15:46:36Z
dc.date.issued 2015
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12866/6530
dc.description.abstract Cumulative human impacts across the world's oceans are considerable. We therefore examined a single model taxonomic group, the penguins (Spheniscidae), to explore how marine species and communities might be at risk of decline or extinction in the southern hemisphere. We sought to determine the most important threats to penguins and to suggest means to mitigate these threats. Our review has relevance to other taxonomic groups in the southern hemisphere and in northern latitudes, where human impacts are greater. Our review was based on an expert assessment and literature review of all 18 penguin species; 49 scientists contributed to the process. For each penguin species, we considered their range and distribution, population trends, and main anthropogenic threats over the past approximately 250 years. These threats were harvesting adults for oil, skin, and feathers and as bait for crab and rock lobster fisheries; harvesting of eggs; terrestrial habitat degradation; marine pollution; fisheries bycatch and resource competition; environmental variability and climate change; and toxic algal poisoning and disease. Habitat loss, pollution, and fishing, all factors humans can readily mitigate, remain the primary threats for penguin species. Their future resilience to further climate change impacts will almost certainly depend on addressing current threats to existing habitat degradation on land and at sea. We suggest protection of breeding habitat, linked to the designation of appropriately scaled marine reserves, including in the High Seas, will be critical for the future conservation of penguins. However, large-scale conservation zones are not always practical or politically feasible and other ecosystem-based management methods that include spatial zoning, bycatch mitigation, and robust harvest control must be developed to maintain marine biodiversity and ensure that ecosystem functioning is maintained across a variety of scales. en_US
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Wiley
dc.relation.ispartof urn:issn:1523-1739
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccess
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.es
dc.subject algae en_US
dc.subject Decapoda (Crustacea) en_US
dc.subject Spheniscidae en_US
dc.subject adverse effects en_US
dc.subject animal en_US
dc.subject climate change en_US
dc.subject ecosystem en_US
dc.subject environmental protection en_US
dc.subject fishery en_US
dc.subject penguin en_US
dc.subject physiology en_US
dc.subject pollution en_US
dc.subject species difference en_US
dc.subject Animals en_US
dc.subject Climate Change en_US
dc.subject Conservation of Natural Resources en_US
dc.subject Ecosystem en_US
dc.subject Environmental Pollution en_US
dc.subject Fisheries en_US
dc.subject Species Specificity en_US
dc.subject Spheniscidae en_US
dc.title Pollution, habitat loss, fishing, and climate change as critical threats to penguins en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/review
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12349
dc.subject.ocde https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#3.02.00 es_PE


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