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Uncovering population structure in the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) along the Pacific coast at South America

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dc.contributor.author Dantas, Gisele P. M.
dc.contributor.author Oliveira, Larissa R.
dc.contributor.author Santos, Amanda M.
dc.contributor.author Flores, Mariana D.
dc.contributor.author Melo, Daniella R. de
dc.contributor.author Simeone, Alejandro
dc.contributor.author Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel
dc.contributor.author Luna-Jorquera, Guillermo
dc.contributor.author Le Bohec, Celine
dc.contributor.author Valdes-Velasquez, Armando
dc.contributor.author Cardena, Marco
dc.contributor.author Morgante, Joao S.
dc.contributor.author Vianna, Juliana A.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-07-04T17:01:22Z
dc.date.available 2019-07-04T17:01:22Z
dc.date.issued 2019
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12866/6941
dc.description.abstract The upwelling hypothesis has been proposed to explain reduced or lack of population structure in seabird species specialized in food resources available at cold-water upwellings. However, population genetic structure may be challenging to detect in species with large population sizes, since variation in allele frequencies are more robust under genetic drift. High gene flow among populations, that can be constant or pulses of migration in a short period, may also decrease power of algorithms to detect genetic structure. Penguin species usually have large population sizes, high migratory ability but philopatric behavior, and recent investigations debate the existence of subtle population structure for some species not detected before. Previous study on Humboldt penguins found lack of population genetic structure for colonies of Punta San Juan and from South Chile. Here, we used mtDNA and nuclear markers (10 microsatellites and RAG1 intron) to evaluate population structure for 11 main breeding colonies of Humboldt penguins, covering the whole spatial distribution of this species. Although mtDNA failed to detect population structure, microsatellite loci and nuclear intron detected population structure along its latitudinal distribution. Microsatellite showed significant Rst values between most of pairwise locations (44 of 56 locations, Rst = 0.003 to 0.081) and 86% of individuals were assigned to their sampled colony, suggesting philopatry. STRUCTURE detected three main genetic clusters according to geographical locations: i) Peru; ii) North of Chile; and iii) Central-South of Chile. The Humboldt penguin shows signal population expansion after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), suggesting that the genetic structure of the species is a result of population dynamics and foraging colder water upwelling that favor gene flow and phylopatric rate. Our findings thus highlight that variable markers and wide sampling along the species distribution are crucial to better understand genetic population structure in animals with high dispersal ability. en_US
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher PLoS
dc.relation.ispartof urn:issn:1932-6203
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccess
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.es
dc.subject animal experiment en_US
dc.subject Article en_US
dc.subject breeding en_US
dc.subject coastal waters en_US
dc.subject correlational study en_US
dc.subject female en_US
dc.subject gene locus en_US
dc.subject gene structure en_US
dc.subject genetic variability en_US
dc.subject genotype en_US
dc.subject intron en_US
dc.subject male en_US
dc.subject mitochondrial DNA en_US
dc.subject nonhuman en_US
dc.subject penguin en_US
dc.subject population structure en_US
dc.subject RAG1 protein en_US
dc.subject South America en_US
dc.subject Spheniscus humboldti en_US
dc.title Uncovering population structure in the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) along the Pacific coast at South America en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0215293
dc.subject.ocde https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#3.02.00 es_PE
dc.subject.ocde https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#1.06.12


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