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Higher risk of malaria transmission outdoors than indoors by Nyssorhynchus darlingi in riverine communities in the Peruvian Amazon.

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dc.contributor.author Saavedra, Marlon P.
dc.contributor.author Conn, Jan E.
dc.contributor.author Alava, Freddy
dc.contributor.author Carrasco-Escobar, Gabriel
dc.contributor.author Prussing, Catharine
dc.contributor.author Bickersmith, Sara A.
dc.contributor.author Sangama, Jorge L.
dc.contributor.author Fernandez-Minope, Carlos
dc.contributor.author Guzman, Mitchel
dc.contributor.author Tong, Carlos
dc.contributor.author Valderrama, Carlos
dc.contributor.author Vinetz, Joseph M.
dc.contributor.author Gamboa, Dionicia
dc.contributor.author Moreno, Marta
dc.date.accessioned 2019-08-08T15:23:47Z
dc.date.available 2019-08-08T15:23:47Z
dc.date.issued 2019
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12866/7157
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Malaria remains an important public health problem in Peru where incidence has been increasing since 2011. Of over 55,000 cases reported in 2017, Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species (76%), with P. falciparum responsible for the remaining 24%. Nyssorhynchus darlingi (previously Anopheles darlingi) is the main vector in Amazonian Peru, where hyperendemic Plasmodium transmission pockets have been found. Mazan district has pronounced spatial heterogeneity of P. vivax malaria. However, little is known about behavior, ecology or seasonal dynamics of Ny. darlingi in Mazan. This study aimed to gather baseline information about bionomics of malaria vectors and transmission risk factors in a hyperendemic malaria area of Amazonian Peru. METHODS: To assess vector biology metrics, five surveys (two in the dry and three in the rainy season), including collection of sociodemographic information, were conducted in four communities in 2016-2017 on the Napo (Urco Mirano, URC; Salvador, SAL) and Mazan Rivers (Visto Bueno, VIB; Libertad, LIB). Human-biting rate (HBR), entomological inoculation rate (EIR) and human blood index (HBI) were measured to test the hypothesis of differences in entomological indices of Ny. darlingi between watersheds. A generalized linear mixed effect model (GLMM) was constructed to model the relationship between household risk factors and the EIR. RESULTS: Nyssorhynchus darlingi comprised 95% of 7117 Anophelinae collected and its abundance was significantly higher along the Mazan River. The highest EIRs (3.03-4.54) were detected in March and June in URC, LIB and VIB, and significantly more Ny. darlingi were infected outdoors than indoors. Multivariate analysis indicated that the EIR was >12 times higher in URC compared with SAL. The HBI ranged from 0.42-0.75; humans were the most common blood source, followed by Galliformes and cows. There were dramatic differences in peak biting time and malaria incidence with similar bednet coverage in the villages. CONCLUSIONS: Nyssorhynchus darlingi is the predominant contributor to malaria transmission in the Mazan District, Peru. Malaria risk in these villages is higher in the peridomestic area, with pronounced heterogeneities between and within villages on the Mazan and the Napo Rivers. Spatiotemporal identification and quantification of the prevailing malaria transmission would provide new evidence to orient specific control measures for vulnerable or at high risk populations. en_US
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Springer
dc.relation.ispartof urn:issn:1756-3305
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccess
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.es
dc.subject adolescent en_US
dc.subject adult en_US
dc.subject Anopheles darlingi en_US
dc.subject Article en_US
dc.subject Blood meal source en_US
dc.subject child en_US
dc.subject cow en_US
dc.subject demography en_US
dc.subject ecology en_US
dc.subject Entomological inoculation rate en_US
dc.subject female en_US
dc.subject Galliformes en_US
dc.subject GLMM en_US
dc.subject health survey en_US
dc.subject high risk population en_US
dc.subject human en_US
dc.subject Human blood index en_US
dc.subject incidence en_US
dc.subject infection risk en_US
dc.subject major clinical study en_US
dc.subject malaria en_US
dc.subject male en_US
dc.subject Mazan District en_US
dc.subject Mazán District en_US
dc.subject nonhuman en_US
dc.subject Nyssorhynchus darlingi en_US
dc.subject Peruvian Amazon en_US
dc.subject Plasmodium en_US
dc.subject population abundance en_US
dc.subject risk factor en_US
dc.subject season en_US
dc.subject social status en_US
dc.subject watershed en_US
dc.title Higher risk of malaria transmission outdoors than indoors by Nyssorhynchus darlingi in riverine communities in the Peruvian Amazon. en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3619-0
dc.subject.ocde https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#3.02.00 es_PE
dc.subject.ocde https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#3.03.07


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