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Seasonal patterns in risk factors for Taenia solium transmission: A GPS tracking study of pigs and open human defecation in northern Peru

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dc.contributor.author Pray, Ian W.
dc.contributor.author Muro Ecca, Claudio Alberto
dc.contributor.author Gamboa Morán, Ricardo
dc.contributor.author Vilchez Barreto, Percy Mcquen
dc.contributor.author Wakeland, Wayne
dc.contributor.author Pan, William
dc.contributor.author Lambert, William E.
dc.contributor.author García Lescano, Héctor Hugo
dc.contributor.author O'Neal, Seth E.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-12-06T20:57:42Z
dc.date.available 2019-12-06T20:57:42Z
dc.date.issued 2019
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12866/7364
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Taenia solium (cysticercosis) is a parasitic cestode that is endemic in rural populations where open defecation is common and free-roaming pigs have access to human feces. The purpose of this study was to examine the roaming patterns of free-range pigs, and identify areas where T. solium transmission could occur via contact with human feces. We did this by using GPS trackers to log the movement of 108 pigs in three villages of northern Peru. Pigs were tracked for approximately six days each and tracking was repeated in the rainy and dry seasons. Maps of pig ranges were analyzed for size, distance from home, land type and contact with human defecation sites, which were assessed in a community-wide defecation survey. RESULTS: Consistent with prior GPS studies and spatial analyses, we found that the majority of pigs remained close to home during the tracking period and had contact with human feces in their home areas: pigs spent a median of 79% (IQR: 61-90%) of their active roaming time within 50 m of their homes and a median of 60% of their contact with open defecation within 100 m of home. Extended away-from-home roaming was predominately observed during the rainy season; overall, home range areas were 61% larger during the rainy season compared to the dry season (95% CI: 41-73%). Both home range size and contact with open defecation sites showed substantial variation between villages, and contact with open defecation sites was more frequent among pigs with larger home ranges and pigs living in higher density areas of their village. CONCLUSIONS: Our study builds upon prior work showing that pigs predominately roam and have contact with human feces within 50-100 m of the home, and that T. solium transmission is most likely to occur in these concentrated areas of contact. This finding, therefore, supports control strategies that target treatment resources to these areas of increased transmission. Our finding of a seasonal trend in roaming ranges may be useful for control programs relying on pig interventions, and in the field of transmission modeling, which require precise estimates of pig behavior and risk. en_US
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher BioMed Central
dc.relation.ispartofseries Parasites and Vectors
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccess
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.es
dc.subject Defecation en_US
dc.subject Seasons en_US
dc.subject adult en_US
dc.subject agricultural land en_US
dc.subject animal en_US
dc.subject animal behavior en_US
dc.subject Animals en_US
dc.subject Article en_US
dc.subject Behavior, Animal en_US
dc.subject Cestodes en_US
dc.subject contact examination en_US
dc.subject cysticercosis en_US
dc.subject Cysticercosis en_US
dc.subject Cysticercosis/epidemiology/transmission/veterinary en_US
dc.subject defecation en_US
dc.subject Defecation en_US
dc.subject feces en_US
dc.subject Feces en_US
dc.subject feces analysis en_US
dc.subject Feces/parasitology en_US
dc.subject female en_US
dc.subject Female en_US
dc.subject geographic information system en_US
dc.subject Geographic Information Systems en_US
dc.subject global positioning system en_US
dc.subject GPS en_US
dc.subject home environment en_US
dc.subject human en_US
dc.subject Humans en_US
dc.subject infection control en_US
dc.subject infection risk en_US
dc.subject isolation and purification en_US
dc.subject land use en_US
dc.subject male en_US
dc.subject Male en_US
dc.subject Movement en_US
dc.subject movement (physiology) en_US
dc.subject nonhuman en_US
dc.subject Open defecation en_US
dc.subject parasite transmission en_US
dc.subject parasitology en_US
dc.subject Peru en_US
dc.subject Peru/epidemiology en_US
dc.subject pig en_US
dc.subject Pigs en_US
dc.subject pilot study en_US
dc.subject population density en_US
dc.subject risk factor en_US
dc.subject Risk Factors en_US
dc.subject rural population en_US
dc.subject Rural Population en_US
dc.subject season en_US
dc.subject seasonal variation en_US
dc.subject Seasons en_US
dc.subject spatial analysis en_US
dc.subject Spatial Analysis en_US
dc.subject Swine en_US
dc.subject swine disease en_US
dc.subject Swine Diseases en_US
dc.subject Swine Diseases/epidemiology/parasitology/transmission en_US
dc.subject Swine/parasitology en_US
dc.subject Taenia solium en_US
dc.subject Taenia solium/isolation & purification en_US
dc.subject trend study en_US
dc.subject vegetation en_US
dc.subject veterinary medicine en_US
dc.title Seasonal patterns in risk factors for Taenia solium transmission: A GPS tracking study of pigs and open human defecation in northern Peru en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3614-5
dc.subject.ocde https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#3.03.07
dc.relation.issn 1756-3305

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