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Natural and anthropogenic variations in atmospheric mercury deposition during the Holocene near Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru

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dc.contributor.author Beal, Samuel A.
dc.contributor.author Kelly, Meredith A.
dc.contributor.author Stroup, Justin S.
dc.contributor.author Jackson, Brian P.
dc.contributor.author Lowell, Thomas V.
dc.contributor.author Tapia, Pedro M.
dc.date.accessioned 2020-06-10T18:11:34Z
dc.date.available 2020-06-10T18:11:34Z
dc.date.issued 2014
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12866/7996
dc.description.abstract Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that is transported globally through the atmosphere. Emissions of Hg from mineral reservoirs and recycling between soil/biomass, oceans, and the atmosphere are fundamental to the global Hg cycle, yet past emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources are not fully constrained. We use a sediment core from Yanacocha, a headwater lake in southeastern Peru, to study the anthropogenic and natural controls on atmospheric Hg deposition during the Holocene. From 12.3 to 3.5 ka, Hg fluxes in the record are relatively constant (mean ± 1σ: 1.4 ± 0.6 μg m-2 a-1). Past Hg deposition does not correlate with changes in regional temperature and precipitation or with most large volcanic events that occurred regionally (~300-400 km from Yanacocha) and globally. In 1450 B.C. (3.4 ka), Hg fluxes abruptly increased and reached the Holocene-maximum flux (6.7 μg m-2 a-1) in 1200 B.C., concurrent with a ~100 year peak in Fe and chalcophile metals (As, Ag, Tl) and the presence of framboidal pyrite. Continuously elevated Hg fluxes from 1200 to 500 B.C. suggest a protracted mining-dust source near Yanacocha that is identical in timing to documented pre-Incan cinnabar mining in central Peru. During Incan and Colonial time (A.D. 1450-1650), Hg deposition remains elevated relative to background levels but lower relative to other Hg records from sediment cores in central Peru, indicating a limited spatial extent of preindustrial Hg emissions. Hg fluxes from A.D. 1980 to 2011 (4.0 ± 1.0 μg m-2 a-1) are 3.0 ± 1.5 times greater than preanthropogenic fluxes. Key Points Hg deposition did not vary with past precipitation, temperature, and volcanism Maximum Holocene Hg fluxes occurred ~3 thousand years ago Modern Hg fluxes are 3 times greater than natural fluxes. en_US
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Wiley
dc.relation.ispartofseries Global Biogeochemical Cycles
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccess
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.es
dc.subject atmospheric deposition en_US
dc.subject Atmospheric mercury deposition en_US
dc.subject Background level en_US
dc.subject Cuzco [Peru] en_US
dc.subject Deposition en_US
dc.subject global climate en_US
dc.subject Holocene en_US
dc.subject lake sediment en_US
dc.subject Lake sediments en_US
dc.subject Lakes en_US
dc.subject mercury (element) en_US
dc.subject Mercury (metal) en_US
dc.subject mercury record en_US
dc.subject Natural sources en_US
dc.subject Peru en_US
dc.subject Pre-industrial en_US
dc.subject Quelccaya Ice Cap en_US
dc.subject Reservoirs (water) en_US
dc.subject sediment core en_US
dc.subject Spatial extent en_US
dc.subject toxic metals en_US
dc.subject Toxic metals en_US
dc.subject tropical climate en_US
dc.subject Tropical climates en_US
dc.title Natural and anthropogenic variations in atmospheric mercury deposition during the Holocene near Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GB004780
dc.subject.ocde https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#1.05.09
dc.relation.issn 1944-9224

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