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Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol

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dc.contributor.author Taddei, C.
dc.contributor.author Zhou, B.
dc.contributor.author Bixby, H.
dc.contributor.author Carrillo-Larco, R.M.
dc.contributor.author Danaei, G.
dc.contributor.author Jackson, R.T.
dc.contributor.author Farzadfar, F.
dc.contributor.author Sophiea, M.K.
dc.contributor.author Di Cesare, M.
dc.contributor.author Iurilli, M.L.C.
dc.contributor.author Martinez, A.R.
dc.contributor.author Asghari, G.
dc.contributor.author Dhana, K.
dc.contributor.author Gulayin, P.
dc.contributor.author Kakarmath, S.
dc.contributor.author Santero, M.
dc.contributor.author Voortman, T.
dc.contributor.author Riley, L.M.
dc.contributor.author Cowan, M.J.
dc.contributor.author Savin, S.
dc.contributor.author Bennett, J.E.
dc.contributor.author Stevens, G.A.
dc.contributor.author Paciorek, C.J.
dc.contributor.author Aekplakorn, W.
dc.contributor.author Cifkova, R.
dc.contributor.author Giampaoli, S.
dc.contributor.author Kengne, A.P.
dc.contributor.author Khang, Y.-H.
dc.contributor.author Kuulasmaa, K.
dc.contributor.author Laxmaiah, A.
dc.contributor.author Margozzini, P.
dc.contributor.author Mathur, P.
dc.contributor.author Nordestgaard, B.G.
dc.contributor.author Zhao, D.
dc.contributor.author Aadahl, M.
dc.contributor.author Abarca-Gómez, L.
dc.contributor.author Rahim, H.A.
dc.contributor.author Abu-Rmeileh, N.M.
dc.contributor.author Acosta-Cazares, B.
dc.contributor.author Adams, R.J.
dc.contributor.author Agdeppa, I.A.
dc.contributor.author Aghazadeh-Attari, J.
dc.contributor.author Aguilar-Salinas, C.A.
dc.contributor.author Agyemang, C.
dc.contributor.author Ahluwalia, T.S.
dc.contributor.author Ahmad, N.A.
dc.contributor.author Ahmadi, A.
dc.contributor.author Ahmadi, N.
dc.contributor.author Ahmed, S.H.
dc.contributor.author Ahrens, W.
dc.contributor.author Ajlouni, K.
dc.contributor.author Alarouj, M.
dc.contributor.author AlBuhairan, F.
dc.contributor.author AlDhukair, S.
dc.contributor.author Ali, M.M.
dc.contributor.author Alkandari, A.
dc.contributor.author Alkerwi, A.
dc.contributor.author Aly, E.
dc.contributor.author Amarapurkar, D.N.
dc.contributor.author Amouyel, P.
dc.contributor.author Andersen, L.B.
dc.contributor.author Anderssen, S.A.
dc.contributor.author Anjana, R.M.
dc.contributor.author Ansari-Moghaddam, A.
dc.contributor.author Aounallah-Skhiri, H.
dc.contributor.author Araújo, J.
dc.contributor.author Ariansen, I.
dc.contributor.author Aris, T.
dc.contributor.author Arku, R.E.
dc.contributor.author Arlappa, N.
dc.contributor.author Aryal, K.K.
dc.contributor.author Aspelund, T.
dc.contributor.author Assunção, M.C.F.
dc.contributor.author Auvinen, J.
dc.contributor.author Avdicová, M.
dc.contributor.author Azevedo, A.
dc.contributor.author Azizi, F.
dc.contributor.author Azmin, M.
dc.contributor.author Balakrishna, N.
dc.contributor.author Bamoshmoosh, M.
dc.contributor.author Banach, M.
dc.contributor.author Bandosz, P.
dc.contributor.author Banegas, J.R.
dc.contributor.author Barbagallo, C.M.
dc.contributor.author Barceló, A.
dc.contributor.author Barkat, A.
dc.contributor.author Bata, I.
dc.contributor.author Batieha, A.M.
dc.contributor.author Batyrbek, A.
dc.contributor.author Baur, L.A.
dc.contributor.author Beaglehole, R.
dc.contributor.author Belavendra, A.
dc.contributor.author Ben Romdhane, H.
dc.contributor.author Benet, M.
dc.contributor.author Benn, M.
dc.contributor.author Berkinbayev, S.
dc.contributor.author Bernabe-Ortiz, A.
dc.contributor.author Bernotiene, G.
dc.contributor.author Bettiol, H.
dc.contributor.author Bhargava, S.K.
dc.contributor.author Bi, Y.
dc.contributor.author Bienek, A.
dc.contributor.author Bikbov, M.
dc.contributor.author Bista, B.
dc.contributor.author Bjerregaard, P.
dc.contributor.author Bjertness, E.
dc.contributor.author Bjertness, M.B.
dc.contributor.author Björkelund, C.
dc.contributor.author Bloch, K.V.
dc.contributor.author Blokstra, A.
dc.contributor.author Bo, S.
dc.contributor.author Boehm, B.O.
dc.contributor.author Boggia, J.G.
dc.contributor.author Boissonnet, C.P.
dc.contributor.author Bonaccio, M.
dc.contributor.author Bongard, V.
dc.contributor.author Borchini, R.
dc.contributor.author Borghs, H.
dc.contributor.author Bovet, P.
dc.contributor.author Brajkovich, I.
dc.contributor.author Breckenkamp, J.
dc.contributor.author Brenner, H.
dc.contributor.author Brewster, L.M.
dc.contributor.author Bruno, G.
dc.contributor.author Bugge, A.
dc.contributor.author Busch, M.A.
dc.contributor.author de León, A.C.
dc.contributor.author Cacciottolo, J.
dc.contributor.author Can, G.
dc.contributor.author Cândido, A.P.C.
dc.contributor.author Capanzana, M.V.
dc.contributor.author Capuano, E.
dc.contributor.author Capuano, V.
dc.contributor.author Cardoso, V.C.
dc.contributor.author Carvalho, J.
dc.contributor.author Casanueva, F.F.
dc.contributor.author Censi, L.
dc.contributor.author Chadjigeorgiou, C.A.
dc.contributor.author Chamukuttan, S.
dc.contributor.author Chaturvedi, N.
dc.contributor.author Chen, C.-J.
dc.contributor.author Chen, F.
dc.contributor.author Chen, S.
dc.contributor.author Cheng, C.-Y.
dc.contributor.author Cheraghian, B.
dc.contributor.author Chetrit, A.
dc.contributor.author Chiou, S.-T.
dc.contributor.author Chirlaque, M.-D.
dc.contributor.author Cho, B.
dc.contributor.author Cho, Y.
dc.contributor.author Chudek, J.
dc.contributor.author Claessens, F.
dc.contributor.author Clarke, J.
dc.contributor.author Clays, E.
dc.contributor.author Concin, H.
dc.contributor.author Confortin, S.C.
dc.contributor.author Cooper, C.
dc.contributor.author Costanzo, S.
dc.contributor.author Cottel, D.
dc.contributor.author Cowell, C.
dc.contributor.author Crujeiras, A.B.
dc.contributor.author Csilla, S.
dc.contributor.author Cui, L.
dc.contributor.author Cureau, F.V.
dc.contributor.author D’Arrigo, G.
dc.contributor.author d’Orsi, E.
dc.contributor.author Dallongeville, J.
dc.contributor.author Damasceno, A.
dc.contributor.author Dankner, R.
dc.contributor.author Dantoft, T.M.
dc.contributor.author Dauchet, L.
dc.contributor.author Davletov, K.
dc.contributor.author De Backer, G.
dc.contributor.author De Bacquer, D.
dc.contributor.author de Gaetano, G.
dc.contributor.author De Henauw, S.
dc.contributor.author de Oliveira, P.D.
dc.contributor.author De Ridder, D.
dc.contributor.author De Smedt, D.
dc.contributor.author Deepa, M.
dc.contributor.author Deev, A.D.
dc.contributor.author Dehghan, A.
dc.contributor.author Delisle, H.
dc.contributor.author Dennison, E.
dc.contributor.author Deschamps, V.
dc.contributor.author Dhimal, M.
dc.contributor.author Di Castelnuovo, A.F.
dc.contributor.author Dika, Z.
dc.contributor.author Djalalinia, S.
dc.contributor.author Dobson, A.J.
dc.contributor.author Donfrancesco, C.
dc.contributor.author Donoso, S.P.
dc.contributor.author Döring, A.
dc.contributor.author Dorobantu, M.
dc.contributor.author Dragano, N.
dc.contributor.author Drygas, W.
dc.contributor.author Du, Y.
dc.contributor.author Duante, C.A.
dc.contributor.author Duda, R.B.
dc.contributor.author Dzerve, V.
dc.contributor.author Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, E.
dc.contributor.author Eddie, R.
dc.contributor.author Eftekhar, E.
dc.contributor.author Eggertsen, R.
dc.contributor.author Eghtesad, S.
dc.contributor.author Eiben, G.
dc.contributor.author Ekelund, U.
dc.contributor.author El Ati, J.
dc.contributor.author Eldemire-Shearer, D.
dc.contributor.author Eliasen, M.
dc.contributor.author Elosua, R.
dc.contributor.author Erasmus, R.T.
dc.contributor.author Erbel, R.
dc.contributor.author Erem, C.
dc.contributor.author Eriksen, L.
dc.contributor.author Eriksson, J.G.
dc.contributor.author Escobedo-de la Peña, J.
dc.contributor.author Eslami, S.
dc.contributor.author Esmaeili, A.
dc.contributor.author Evans, A.
dc.contributor.author Faeh, D.
dc.contributor.author Fall, C.H.
dc.contributor.author Faramarzi, E.
dc.contributor.author Farjam, M.
dc.contributor.author Fattahi, M.R.
dc.contributor.author Felix-Redondo, F.J.
dc.contributor.author Ferguson, T.S.
dc.contributor.author Fernández-Bergés, D.
dc.contributor.author Ferrante, D.
dc.contributor.author Ferrari, M.
dc.contributor.author Ferreccio, C.
dc.contributor.author Ferrieres, J.
dc.contributor.author Föger, B.
dc.contributor.author Foo, L.H.
dc.contributor.author Forslund, A.-S.
dc.contributor.author Forsner, M.
dc.contributor.author Fouad, H.M.
dc.contributor.author Francis, D.K.
dc.contributor.author do Carmo Franco, M.
dc.contributor.author Franco, O.H.
dc.contributor.author Frontera, G.
dc.contributor.author Fujita, Y.
dc.contributor.author Fumihiko, M.
dc.contributor.author Furusawa, T.
dc.contributor.author Gaciong, Z.
dc.contributor.author Galvano, F.
dc.contributor.author Gao, J.
dc.contributor.author Garcia-de-la-Hera, M.
dc.contributor.author Garnett, S.P.
dc.contributor.author Gaspoz, J.-M.
dc.contributor.author Gasull, M.
dc.contributor.author Gazzinelli, A.
dc.contributor.author Geleijnse, J.M.
dc.contributor.author Ghanbari, A.
dc.contributor.author Ghasemi, E.
dc.contributor.author Gheorghe-Fronea, O.-F.
dc.contributor.author Ghimire, A.
dc.contributor.author Gianfagna, F.
dc.contributor.author Gill, T.K.
dc.contributor.author Giovannelli, J.
dc.contributor.author Gironella, G.
dc.contributor.author Giwercman, A.
dc.contributor.author Goltzman, D.
dc.contributor.author Gonçalves, H.
dc.contributor.author Gonzalez-Chica, D.A.
dc.contributor.author Gonzalez-Gross, M.
dc.contributor.author González-Rivas, J.P.
dc.contributor.author González-Villalpando, C.
dc.contributor.author González-Villalpando, M.-E.
dc.contributor.author Gonzalez, A.R.
dc.contributor.author Gottrand, F.
dc.contributor.author Graff-Iversen, S.
dc.contributor.author Grafnetter, D.
dc.contributor.author Gregor, R.D.
dc.contributor.author Grodzicki, T.
dc.contributor.author Grøntved, A.
dc.contributor.author Grosso, G.
dc.contributor.author Gruden, G.
dc.contributor.author Gu, D.
dc.contributor.author Guallar-Castillón, P.
dc.contributor.author Guan, O.P.
dc.contributor.author Gudmundsson, E.F.
dc.contributor.author Gudnason, V.
dc.contributor.author Guerrero, R.
dc.contributor.author Guessous, I.
dc.contributor.author Gunnlaugsdottir, J.
dc.contributor.author Gupta, R.
dc.contributor.author Gutierrez, L.
dc.contributor.author Gutzwiller, F.
dc.contributor.author Ha, S.
dc.contributor.author Hadaegh, F.
dc.contributor.author Haghshenas, R.
dc.contributor.author Hakimi, H.
dc.contributor.author Hambleton, I.R.
dc.contributor.author Hamzeh, B.
dc.contributor.author Hantunen, S.
dc.contributor.author Kumar, R.H.
dc.contributor.author Hashemi-Shahri, S.M.
dc.contributor.author Hata, J.
dc.contributor.author Haugsgjerd, T.
dc.contributor.author Hayes, A.J.
dc.contributor.author He, J.
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dc.contributor.author Hendriks, M.E.
dc.contributor.author Henriques, A.
dc.contributor.author Herrala, S.
dc.contributor.author Heshmat, R.
dc.contributor.author Hill, A.G.
dc.contributor.author Ho, S.Y.
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dc.contributor.author Hobbs, M.
dc.contributor.author Hofman, A.
dc.contributor.author Homayounfar, R.
dc.contributor.author Hopman, W.M.
dc.contributor.author Horimoto, A.R.V.R.
dc.contributor.author Hormiga, C.M.
dc.contributor.author Horta, B.L.
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dc.contributor.author Huhtaniemi, I.T.
dc.contributor.author Huisman, M.
dc.contributor.author Hunsberger, M.L.
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dc.contributor.author Huybrechts, I.
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dc.contributor.author Jafar, T.
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dc.contributor.author Janus, E.
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dc.contributor.author Jimenez, R.O.
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dc.contributor.author Kafatos, A.
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dc.contributor.author Moghaddam, S.S.
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dc.date.accessioned 2020-12-14T16:10:16Z
dc.date.available 2020-12-14T16:10:16Z
dc.date.issued 2020
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12866/8818
dc.description.abstract High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world. en_US
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Springer
dc.relation.ispartof urn:issn:1476-4687
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccess
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.es
dc.subject UNAVAILABLE en_US
dc.title Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol en_US
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2338-1
dc.subject.ocde https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#3.02.00 es_PE
dc.subject.ocde https://purl.org/pe-repo/ocde/ford#3.02.04


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